Gluten Immunogenic Peptides Are Not Correlated with Reported Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in Children with Celiac Disease

Anat Guz-Mark, Tsachi Tsadok Perets, Neta Biran, Yifat Jack, Noam Zevit, Ari Silbermintz, Manar Matar, Vered Nachmias-Friedler, Orith Waisbourd-Zinman, Michal Rozenfeld Bar-Lev, Yair Huta, Olga Ashorov, Rachel Gingold-Belfer, Raanan Shamir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: There is no gold standard to assess adherence to gluten-free diet (GFD) among patients with celiac disease (CeD). Gluten immunogenic peptides (GIPs) in urine and stool were suggested as novel markers for evaluating adherence to GFD. Our aim was to assess the presence of GIP in pediatric patients with CeD, and to compare the results with alternative methods for evaluating GFD adherence. Methods: Pediatric patients diagnosed with CeD, who were on GFD for at least 1 year, were enrolled and followed prospectively between November 2018 and January 2021. Study visits included clinical assessment, a dietitian interview, Biagi score, food questionnaires, anthropometric and laboratory measurements, and urine and stool samples obtained for laboratory GIP analysis. Results: The study included 74 patients (63.5% females), with median (interquartile range, IQR) age of 9.9 (7.8-11.7) years, and median (IQR) duration on GFD of 2.5 (2-5.5) years. Good GFD adherence, assessed by Biagi score, was reported in 93.1% of cases. GIP was evaluated during 134 visits, with GIP detected in 27 of 134 (20.1%) of the visits (16.3% of stool samples and 5.3% of urine samples). Positive GIP results were significantly more common in males compared to females (30.6% vs 14.1%, respectively, P < 0.05). Detection of positive GIP was not associated with dietary assessment of GFD adherence, celiac serology results, or reported symptoms. Conclusions: Stool and urine GIP can be detected in children with CeD, even when dietary assessment indicate good adherence to GFD. The role of GIP testing in clinical practice should be further explored.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)244-248
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2023


  • Celiac Disease/diagnosis
  • Child
  • Diet, Gluten-Free
  • Female
  • Glutens
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Patient Compliance
  • Peptides
  • biomarkers
  • celiac disease
  • compliance
  • follow-up

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Gastroenterology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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