Glucose Inhibits Yeast AMPK (Snf1) by Three Independent Mechanisms

Kobi Simpson-Lavy, Martin Kupiec

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Snf1, the fungal homologue of mammalian AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK), is a key protein kinase coordinating the response of cells to a shortage of glucose. In fungi, the response is to activate respiratory gene expression and metabolism. The major regulation of Snf1 activity has been extensively investigated: In the absence of glucose, it becomes activated by phosphorylation of its threonine at position 210. This modification can be erased by phosphatases when glucose is restored. In the past decade, two additional independent mechanisms of Snf1 regulation have been elucidated. In response to glucose (or, surprisingly, also to DNA damage), Snf1 is SUMOylated by Mms21 at lysine 549. This inactivates Snf1 and leads to Snf1 degradation. More recently, glucose-induced proton export has been found to result in Snf1 inhibition via a polyhistidine tract (13 consecutive histidine residues) at the N-terminus of the Snf1 protein. Interestingly, the polyhistidine tract plays also a central role in the response to iron scarcity. This review will present some of the glucose-sensing mechanisms of S. cerevisiae, how they interact, and how their interplay results in Snf1 inhibition by three different, and independent, mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1007
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2023


  • AMPK
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • Snf1
  • fermentation
  • glucose metabolism
  • hexose
  • respiration
  • yeast

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


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