Generation of interfacial waves by rotating magnetic fields

Gerrit Maik Horstmann, Yakov Nezihovski, Thomas Gundrum, Alexander Gelfgat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Interfacial waves arising in a two-phase swirling flow driven by a low-frequency rotating magnetic field (RMF) are studied. At low RMF frequencies, on the order of 1-10Hz, the oscillatory part of the induced Lorenz force becomes comparable to the time-averaged one and cannot be neglected. In particular, when free surfaces or two-liquid stably stratified systems are subject to a low-frequency RMF, induced pressure variations necessarily excite free-surface/interfacial waves, which can improve mass transfer in different metallurgical processes. In this paper we formulate a linear wave model and derive explicit analytical solutions predicting RMF-driven wave patterns that closely resemble hyperbolic paraboloids. These theoretical predictions are validated against experiments based on a nonintrusive acoustic measurement technique, which measures liquid-liquid interface elevations in a two-phase KOH-GaInSn stably stratified system. A good quantitative agreement is found for nonresonant wave responses in the vicinity of the fundamental resonance frequency. The experiments reveal the additional excitation of several higher harmonics superimposing the fundamental wave oscillation, which are visible even in the linear wave regime.

Original languageEnglish
Article number054801
JournalPhysical Review Fluids
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computational Mechanics
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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