Free-Electron Qubits

Ori Reinhardt, Chen Mechel, Morgan Lynch, Ido Kaminer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Free-electron interactions with laser-driven nearfields can quantize the electrons’ energy spectrum and provide control over this quantized degree of freedom. The study proposes to use such interactions to promote free electrons as carriers of quantum information and show how to create a qubit on a free electron, which holds promise for applications in electron microscopy and spectroscopy. A method to implement the qubit's noncommutative spin algebra, and to control and measure the qubit state with a universal set of 1-qubit gates is shown. These gates are within the current capabilities of ultrafast transmission electron microscopes. Laser-driven free-electron qubits promise configurability by the laser intensity, frequency, and polarizability, simultaneously with high-resolution temporal control on femtosecond timescales.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2000254
JournalAnnalen der Physik
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2021


  • electron−light interactions
  • femtosecond lasers
  • free-electron physics
  • quantum information
  • qubits

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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