Fansmitter: Acoustic data exfiltration from air-Gapped computers via fans noise

Mordechai Guri, Yosef Solewicz, Yuval Elovici

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Computers that contain sensitive information are often maintained in air-gapped isolation. In this defensive measure, a computer is disconnected from the Internet - logically and physically - preventing accidental or intentional leakage of sensitive information outward. In recent years it has been shown that malware can leak data over an air-gap by transmitting sonic and ultrasonic signals from a computer speaker. In order to eliminate such acoustic covert channels, current best practice recommends the elimination of speakers in secured computers, thereby creating a so-called ‘audio-gapped’ system. In this paper, we present ‘Fansmitter,’ a malware that can acoustically exfiltrate data from air-gapped computers, even when audio hardware and speakers are not present. Our method utilizes the noise emitted from the CPU, GPU, and chassis fans. We show that a software can regulate the internal fans’ rotation speed in order to control their acoustic signal, known as blade pass frequency (BPF). Binary data can be modulated and transmitted over these audio signals to a remote microphone (e.g., a nearby smartphone). We present design considerations, including acoustic waveform analysis, data modulation and demodulation, and data transmission and reception. We evaluate the acoustic covert channel with various fans at different distances and present the results. We also discuss issues such as stealth, interference, and countermeasures. Using our method we successfully transmitted data from audio-less, air-gapped computers, to a mobile phone in the same room. We demonstrated an effective transmission at distances of 1–8 m, with a maximum bit rate of 60 bit/min per fan.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number101721
JournalComputers and Security
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Air gaps
  • Computer viruses
  • Network security

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Computer Science
  • Law


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