External-pressure–electrochemistry coupling in solid-state lithium metal batteries

Xia Hu, Zhijia Zhang, Xiang Zhang, Yao Wang, Xu Yang, Xia Wang, Miryam Fayena-Greenstein, Hadas Alon Yehezkel, Steven Langford, Dong Zhou, Baohua Li, Guoxiu Wang, Doron Aurbach

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Solid-state lithium metal batteries (SSLBs) using inorganic solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) have attracted extensive scientific and commercial interest owing to their potential to provide higher energy density and safety than conventional Li-ion batteries. These batteries are subject to external pressure during both their manufacturing processes (fabrication pressure) and their operation (stack pressure). This pressure not only affects the intrinsic properties of both the electrolytes (such as ionic conductivity and electrochemical voltage window) and the electrodes (such as ion transport and structural variation) but also determines the cyclability and safety of the whole battery. Hence, understanding the effect of pressure is essential when designing high-performance SSLBs. This Review aims to elucidate the coupling between external pressure and electrochemistry in these batteries. We summarize the effects of external pressure on SSEs and electrodes, and on the interfaces between the components. We analyse the overall electrochemical performance and safety of the batteries under external pressure. Finally, we clarify the dominant challenges in achieving pressure-proof and low-pressure SSLBs, laying out a perspective for future breakthroughs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)305-320
Number of pages16
JournalNature Reviews Materials
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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