Background: This study aimed to evaluate peri-implant bone formation in rabbits after sinus grafting mediated by hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate (HA + β-TCP) in granule or paste configurations, concomitant with immediate implant installation. Material & methods: Thirty-four rabbit maxillary sinuses were grafted with HA + β-TCP, half of which were applied in a granule and half in a paste composition. Implant placement was performed simultaneously. At 7 and 40 days postoperatively, the animals were euthanized, and samples were prepared for tomographic, microtomographic, histological, histometric (hematoxylin and eosin staining, HE), and immunohistochemical (labeling of transcription factor Runx-2 [RUNX2], vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], osteocalcin [OCN], and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase [TRAP]) analysis. Implant removal torque was also measured. Results: On tomography, maintenance of sinus membrane integrity was observed in both the groups. Higher values of morphometric parameters evaluated by micro-CT were found in the “paste group” after seven days. At 40 days, there were no significant differences between the groups in most of the microtomographic parameters evaluated. In histological sections stained with HE, a higher percentage of newly formed bone was observed in the “granule group” after 40 days. Similar positive immunolabeling was observed for both RUNX2 and OCN in both the experimental groups. TRAP immunolabeling was similar in both groups as well. VEGF labeling increased in the “granule group”, indicating a higher osteoconductive potential in this biomaterial. Similar removal torque values were observed in both groups. Thus, the two HA + β-TCP configurations showed similar healing patterns of simultaneously installed implants adjacent to sinus floor elevation. However, significantly higher bone values were observed for the “granule configuration”. Conclusions: The HA + β-TCP granules and paste presentations showed favorable long-term healing results, with bone formation in similar quantities and quality adjacent to the implants.
- bone regeneration
- dental implant
- sinus floor augmentation
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