eQuilibrator: the biochemical thermodynamics calculator

Avi Flamholz, Elad Noor, Arren Bar-Even, Ron Milo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The laws of thermodynamics constrain the action of biochemical systems. However, thermodynamic data on biochemical compounds can be difficult to find and is cumbersome to perform calculations with manually. Even simple thermodynamic questions like 'how much Gibbs energy is released by ATP hydrolysis at pH 5?' are complicated excessively by the search for accurate data. To address this problem, eQuilibrator couples a comprehensive and accurate database of thermodynamic properties of biochemical compounds and reactions with a simple and powerful online search and calculation interface. The web interface to eQuilibrator (http:// equilibrator.weizmann.ac.il) enables easy calculation of Gibbs energies of compounds and reactions given arbitrary pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentrations. The eQuilibrator code is open-source and all thermodynamic source data are freely downloadable in standard formats. Here we describe the database characteristics and implementation and demonstrate its use.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)D770-D775
JournalNucleic acids research
Issue numberD1
StatePublished - Jan 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Genetics


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