Epilogue: The Sunni-Shi‘i Paradox

Ofra Bengio, Meir Litvak

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingForeword/postscript


Sunni-Shi‘i relations are more complex in the aftermath of the 2003 American invasion to Iraq than at any other time in modern history, revealing certain paradoxes and contradictions. In Sunni countries, two major phenomena have become increasingly evident. The first is the growing divide between the political elites and the masses, and the second is the discord among Sunni Islamist movements.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Sunna and Shi’a in History
Subtitle of host publicationDivision and Ecumenism in the Muslim Middle East
EditorsOfra Bengio, Meir Litvak
Place of PublicationNew York, N.Y
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)023012092X, 023037073X, 1137495065, 1283440296, 9780230370739, 9786613440297, 9781137495068
StatePublished - 2011


  • Arab Country
  • Gulf Country
  • Islamic World
  • Muslim World
  • Political Elite

ULI publications

  • uli


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