## Abstract

Classical chaos is often characterized as exponential divergence of nearby trajectories. In many interesting cases these trajectories can be identified with geodesic curves. We define here the entropy by S = ln χ(x) with χ(x) being the distance between two nearby geodesics. We derive an equation for the entropy, which by transformation to a Riccati-type equation becomes similar to the Jacobi equation. We further show that the geodesic equation for a null geodesic in a double-warped spacetime leads to the same entropy equation. By applying a Robertson-Walker metric for a flat three-dimensional Euclidean space expanding as a function of time, we again reach the entropy equation stressing the connection between the chosen entropy measure and time. We finally turn to the Raychaudhuri equation for expansion, which also is a Riccati equation similar to the transformed entropy equation. Those Riccati-type equations have solutions of the same form as the Jacobi equation. The Raychaudhuri equation can be transformed to a harmonic oscillator equation, and it has been shown that the geodesic deviation equation of Jacobi is essentially equivalent to that of a harmonic oscillator. The Raychaudhuri equations are strong geometrical tools in the study of general relativity and cosmology. We suggest a refined entropy measure applicable in cosmology and defined by the average deviation of the geodesics in a congruence.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 6 |

Journal | Entropy |

Volume | 20 |

Issue number | 1 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 1 Jan 2018 |

## Keywords

- Cosmology
- General relativity
- Raychaudhuri equations; entropy

## All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

- Information Systems
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Mathematical Physics
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)