Enhanced reading by training with imposed time constraint in typical and dyslexic adults

Zvia Breznitz, Shelley Shaul, Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus, Itamar Sela, Michael Nevat, Avi Karni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Poor reading skills of developmental dyslexics persist into adulthood with standard remediation protocols having little effect. Nevertheless, reading improves if readers are induced to read faster. Here we show that this improvement can be enhanced by training. Training follows a multi-session procedure adapted to silent sentence reading, with individually set, increasingly more demanding, time constraints (letter-by-letter masking). In both typical and dyslexic adult readers, reading times are shortened and comprehension improves. After training, the dyslexic readers' performance is similar to that of typical readers; moreover, their connected text reading times and comprehension scores significantly improve in standard reading tests and are retained at 6 months post training. Identical training without time constraints proves ineffective. Our results suggest that fluent reading depends in part on rapid information processing, which then might affect perception, cognitive processing and possibly eye movements. These processes remain malleable in adulthood, even in individuals with developmental dyslexia.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number1486
JournalNature Communications
StatePublished - 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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