Engineering Smart Hybrid Tissues with Built-In Electronics

Ron Feiner, Tal Dvir

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


One of the major hurdles faced in tissue engineering is the inability to monitor and control the function of an engineered tissue following transplantation. Recent years have seen major developments in the field by integrating electronics within engineered tissues. Previously, the most common types of devices integrated into the body used to be pacemakers and deep brain stimulation electrodes that are stiff and non-compliant; the advent of ultra-thin and flexible electronics has brought forth a significant expansion of the field. Recent developments have enabled interfacing electronics onto, into, and within all tissues and organs with minimal adverse reactions. These have introduced the ability to engineer tissues with built-in electronics that allow for remote monitoring and regulation of tissue function. In this review, we discuss the development of technologies that allowed for the formation of tissue-electronics hybrids and give an overview of the existing examples of these hybrid “cyborg” tissues.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100833
Issue number2
StatePublished - 21 Feb 2020


  • Bioelectronics
  • Bioengineering
  • Biotechnology
  • Tissue Engineering

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General


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