Crystallographic studies have offered understanding of how receptor tyrosine kinases from the ErbB family are regulated by their growth factor ligands. A conformational change of the EGFR (ErbB1) was shown to occur upon ligand binding, where a solely ligand-mediated mode of dimerization/activation was documented. However, this dogma of dimerization/activation was revolutionized by the discovery of constitutively active ligand-independent EGFR mutants. In addition, other ligand-independent activation mechanisms may occur. We have shown that oxidative stress (ox-stress), induced by hydrogen peroxide or cigarette smoke, activates EGFR differently than its ligand, EGF, thereby inducing aberrant phosphorylation and impaired trafficking and degradation of EGFR. Here we demonstrate that ox-stress activation of EGFR is ligand-independent, does not induce "classical" receptor dimerization and is not inhibited by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478. Thus, an unprecedented, apparently activated, state is found for EGFR under ox-stress. Furthermore, this activation mechanism is temperature-dependent, suggesting the simultaneous involvement of membrane structure. We propose that ceramide increase under ox-stress disrupts cholesterol-enriched rafts leading to EGFR re-localization into the rigid, ceramide-enriched rafts. This increase in ceramide also supports EGFR aberrant trafficking to a peri-nuclear region. Therefore, the EGFR unprecedented and activated conformation could be sustained by simultaneous alterations in membrane structure under ox-stress.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)