Effect of surface cleaning regimen on glass ceramic bond strength

Barbara Lapinska, Jacek Rogowski, Joanna Nowak, Joseph Nissan, Jerzy Sokolowski, Monika Lukomska-Szymanska

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study investigated the effect of saliva contamination on chemical changes of ceramic surface as well as the influence of saliva cleaning methods on ceramic-resin bond strength. Saliva was used to contaminate leucite (LGC) and lithium disilicate (LDGC) glass ceramic surfaces. The following cleaning methods were tested: water spray, cleaning with orthophosphoric acid, universal cleaning paste, ultrasonic cleaning with water, re-etching with hydrofluoric acid. Non-contaminated ceramic sample served as control. Chemical analysis of ceramic surfaces was performed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Shear bond strength (SBS) of ceramics to resin material was tested after 24-hour water storage and after thermocycling. The most effective cleaning method of saliva-contaminated ceramic surface was cleaning LGC surface with orthophosphoric acid or re-etching the LDGC surface with hydrofluoric acid. The application of the following methods resulted in obtaining reliable bond strength.

Original languageEnglish
Article number389
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • Bond strength
  • Ceramics
  • Leucite ceramics
  • Lithium disilicate ceramics
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Saliva contamination
  • Surface cleaning methods

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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