Dynamics of Pediatric Antibiotic Use Differ between High- and Low-Prescribing Clinics after Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines

Dana Danino, Bart Adriaan van der Beek, Noga Givon-Lavi, Shalom Ben-Shimol, David Greenberg, Ron Dagan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To compare dispensed oral antibiotic prescription rates (DAPRs) after implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in high antibiotic-prescribing clinics (HPC) with low antibiotic-prescribing clinics (LPC) in 2 distinct ethnic groups of children (Jewish and Bedouin children) <5 years of age. Methods: Clinics with ≥50 insured children, active both pre-PCV (2005-2009) and post-PCV (2010-2018) implementation, were included. HPC and LPC were defined by DAPRs above or below the median in each age and ethnic group. Monthly dispensed antibiotic prescription rate (DAPR) trends (adjusted for age and ethnicity) were calculated using interrupted time series. Mean yearly incidence rate-ratios (late PCV13 vs pre-PCV) were calculated. Results: Bedouin HPC had the highest pre-PCV overall-DAPR per 1000 child-years ± SD (2520.4 ± 121.2), followed by Jewish HPC (1885.5 ± 47.6), Bedouin LPC (1314.8 ± 81.6), and Jewish LPC (996.0 ± 19.6). Shortly after PCV implementation, all DAPRs and amoxicillin/amoxicillin-clavulanate DAPRs declined in all groups except Jewish LPC, stabilizing within 4-5 years post-PCV. The rates and magnitudes of declines were directly proportional to the pre-PCV DAPR magnitudes, achieving near-complete closure of the pre-PCV DAPR gaps between the 4 groups (rates during late-PCV13 ranging from 1649.4 ± 23.5 [Bedouin HPC] to 1200.3 ± 72.4 [Jewish LPC]). Conclusions: PCVs are a powerful tool in reducing outpatient antibiotic consumption among young children, especially in HPC, resulting in partial closure of DAPR gap between HPC and LPC. The higher impact on HPC suggests that PCV-associated declines of respiratory disease may strongly contribute to a judicious antibiotic approach in clinics with high antibiotic consumption.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number113679
JournalJournal of Pediatrics
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2023


  • PCV
  • antibiotic use
  • high and low prescribing clinics
  • outpatient children
  • pneumococcal conjugate vaccines

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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