Differential Serum and Urine CRP, IP-10, and TRAIL Levels in Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

Liat Ashkenazi-Hoffnung, Gilat Livni, Oded Scheuerman, Itay Berger, Eran Eden, Kfir Oved, Liran Shani, Gali Kronenfeld, Einav Simon, Olga Boico, Roy Navon, Tanya M. Gottlieb, Eran Barash, Meital Paz, Yael Yuhas, Eva Berent, Shai Ashkenazi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: It is estimated that clinical evaluation and urinalysis are unable to diagnose >10% of urinary tract infections (UTI) in young children. TNF-related apoptosis induced ligand (TRAIL), interferon gamma induced protein-10 (IP-10), and C-reactive protein (CRP) exhibit differential expression in the blood in response to bacterial vs. viral infection. We assessed if the urinary and serum levels of these host biomarkers discriminate UTI, nephronia, and response to antibiotic treatment. Methods: Hospitalized febrile children aged <18 years with suspected UTI based on abnormal urinalysis were recruited prospectively between 2016 and 2018; also, non-febrile controls were recruited. Following urine culture results and hospitalization course, participants were divided into three groups based on AAP criteria and expert adjudication: UTI, viral infection, and indeterminate. Results: Seventy-three children were enrolled, 61 with suspected UTI and 12 non-febrile controls. Of the 61 with suspected UTI, 40 were adjudicated as UTI, 10 viral infection, and 11 as indeterminate. Urinary CRP and IP-10 levels were significantly higher in the UTI group (p ≤ 0.05). Urinary CRP differentiated UTI from non-bacterial etiology in children under and over 3 months of age, with AUCs 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93–1.00) and 0.82 (0.68–0.95), respectively. Similarly, urinary IP-10 discriminated with AUCs of 0.80 (0.59–1.00) and 0.90 (0.80–1.00), respectively. Serum CRP and IP-10 levels were significantly higher in UTI cases with nephronia (p ≤ 0.03). UTI-induced changes in the levels of urinary and serum biomarkers resolved during recovery. Conclusions: CRP, IP-10, and TRAIL represent biomarkers with potential to aid the clinician in diagnosis and management of UTI.

Original languageEnglish
Article number771118
JournalFrontiers in Pediatrics
StatePublished - 13 Dec 2021


  • biomarker
  • fever
  • host
  • neonate
  • pyelonephritis

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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