Developmental neuronal remodeling is crucial for proper wiring of the adult nervous system. While remodeling of individual neuronal populations has been studied, how neuronal circuits remodel—and whether remodeling of synaptic partners is coordinated—is unknown. We found that the Drosophila anterior paired lateral (APL) neuron undergoes stereotypic remodeling during metamorphosis in a similar time frame as the mushroom body (MB) ɣ-neurons, with whom it forms a functional circuit. By simultaneously manipulating both neuronal populations, we found that cell-autonomous inhibition of ɣ-neuron pruning resulted in the inhibition of APL pruning in a process that is mediated, at least in part, by Ca 2+-Calmodulin and neuronal activity dependent interaction. Finally, ectopic unpruned MB ɣ axons display ectopic connections with the APL, as well as with other neurons, at the adult, suggesting that inhibiting remodeling of one neuronal type can affect the functional wiring of the entire micro-circuit. Developmental remodeling is crucial for stereotypic neural circuit formation. Mayseless et al. describe a neural circuit in Drosophila that undergoes coordinated remodeling. They show that neurons within the same circuit interact via neuronal activity and Ca 2+/Calmodulin signaling to coordinate remodeling.
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