Deterioration Patterns of Stone Claddings under Standard Conditions and Marine Environment

Igal M Shohet, Lorenzo Ciabocco, Irena Rina Wasserman

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


Building facades are exposed to degradation processes because of the direct exposure to various environmental impacts. Severe service conditions such as marine environment can drastically accelerate the deterioration of stone cladding. The objectives of the study were, as follows: exploring the typical deterioration patterns of the exterior natural stone cladding implemented by
wet and dry fixing and estimating the predicted service life (PSL), in course of the exposure of cladding to the impact of the standard and marine environments. Although the dry fixed method has recently become highly ubiquitous in the modern building practice, no studies have yet investigated the effect of fixing technique on the durability and service life expectancy of cladding. The research method is based on a systematic evaluation of the visual and physical performance of the components during their life cycle. 87 data points were collected and classified by a type of cladding and the service conditions. Regression analysis and prediction intervals were used for statistical analysis. The results clearly indicate that the type of fixing technique plays a crucial role in the rate of stone cladding decay in both standard and marine environment. The results have also integrated the data provided by material scientists and geologists on the mechanisms of stone deterioration, as a function of stone type, service conditions and the effect of the contact between stone and the Portland cement mortar. It could be obviously observed that the PSL of the dry-fixed stone cladding is ~ 1.3 – 1.6 time more than in case of the wet fixed technique, in both standard and marine environment, with the upper limit of 60 year service life of the dry-fixed cladding exposed to the standard service
conditions. This study provides useful information for designers, construction and facility management decision-makers and for effective planning of preventive maintenance plans.
Original languageAmerican English
Title of host publicationProceedings of the Creative Construction Conference, 2016
Number of pages6
StatePublished - 2016

Publication series



  • : double skin facades
  • Service life prediction
  • maintenance
  • marine environment
  • natural stone claddings


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