Design of aerosol face masks for children using computerized 3D face analysis

Israel Amirav, Anthony S. Luder, Asaf Halamish, Dan Raviv, Ron Kimmel, Dan Waisman, Michael T. Newhouse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Aerosol masks were originally developed for adults and downsized for children. Overall fit to minimize dead space and a tight seal are problematic, because children's faces undergo rapid and marked topographic and internal anthropometric changes in their first few months/years of life. Facial three-dimensional (3D) anthropometric data were used to design an optimized pediatric mask. Methods: Children's faces (n=271, aged 1 month to 4 years) were scanned with 3D technology. Data for the distance from the bridge of the nose to the tip of the chin (H) and the width of the mouth opening (W) were used to categorize the scans into "small," "medium," and "large" "clusters." Results: "Average" masks were developed from each cluster to provide an optimal seal with minimal dead space. The resulting computerized contour, W and H, were used to develop the SootherMask® that enables children, "suckling" on their own pacifier, to keep the mask on their face, mainly by means of subatmospheric pressure. The relatively wide and flexible rim of the mask accommodates variations in facial size within and between clusters. Conclusions: Unique pediatric face masks were developed based on anthropometric data obtained through computerized 3D face analysis. These masks follow facial contours and gently seal to the child's face, and thus may minimize aerosol leakage and dead space.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)272-278
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2014


  • children
  • clinical trial
  • face analysis
  • face mask
  • inhaled therapy

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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