TY - GEN

T1 - Cryptography from sublinear-time average-case hardness of time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity

AU - Liu, Yanyi

AU - Pass, Rafael

N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2021 ACM.

PY - 2021/6/15

Y1 - 2021/6/15

N2 - Let MKtP[s] be the set of strings x such that Kt(x) ? s(|x|), where Kt(x) denotes the t-bounded Kolmogorov complexity of the truthtable described by x. Our main theorem shows that for an appropriate notion of mild average-case hardness, for every ?>0, polynomial t(n) ? (1+?)n, and every "nice"class F of super-polynomial functions, the following are equivalent: (i) the existence of some function T e F such that T-hard one-way functions (OWF) exists (with non-uniform security); (ii) the existence of some function T e F such that MKtP[T-1] is mildly average-case hard with respect to sublinear-time non-uniform algorithms (with running-time n? for some 0<?<1). For instance, existence of subexponentially-hard (resp. quasi-poly-nomially-hard) OWFs is equivalent to mild average-case hardness of MKtP[poly logn] (resp. MKtP[2O(?logn))]) w.r.t. sublinear-time non-uniform algorithms. We additionally note that if we want to deduce T-hard OWFs where security holds w.r.t. uniform T-time probabilistic attackers (i.e., uniformly-secure OWFs), it suffices to assume sublinear time hardness of MKtP w.r.t. uniform probabilistic sublinear-time attackers. We complement this result by proving lower bounds that come surprisingly close to what is required to unconditionally deduce the existence of (uniformly-secure) OWFs: MKtP[polylogn] is worst-case hard w.r.t. uniform probabilistic sublinear-time algorithms, and MKtP[n-logn] is mildly average-case hard for all O(t(n)/n3)-time deterministic algorithms.

AB - Let MKtP[s] be the set of strings x such that Kt(x) ? s(|x|), where Kt(x) denotes the t-bounded Kolmogorov complexity of the truthtable described by x. Our main theorem shows that for an appropriate notion of mild average-case hardness, for every ?>0, polynomial t(n) ? (1+?)n, and every "nice"class F of super-polynomial functions, the following are equivalent: (i) the existence of some function T e F such that T-hard one-way functions (OWF) exists (with non-uniform security); (ii) the existence of some function T e F such that MKtP[T-1] is mildly average-case hard with respect to sublinear-time non-uniform algorithms (with running-time n? for some 0<?<1). For instance, existence of subexponentially-hard (resp. quasi-poly-nomially-hard) OWFs is equivalent to mild average-case hardness of MKtP[poly logn] (resp. MKtP[2O(?logn))]) w.r.t. sublinear-time non-uniform algorithms. We additionally note that if we want to deduce T-hard OWFs where security holds w.r.t. uniform T-time probabilistic attackers (i.e., uniformly-secure OWFs), it suffices to assume sublinear time hardness of MKtP w.r.t. uniform probabilistic sublinear-time attackers. We complement this result by proving lower bounds that come surprisingly close to what is required to unconditionally deduce the existence of (uniformly-secure) OWFs: MKtP[polylogn] is worst-case hard w.r.t. uniform probabilistic sublinear-time algorithms, and MKtP[n-logn] is mildly average-case hard for all O(t(n)/n3)-time deterministic algorithms.

KW - Kolmogorov complexity

KW - One-way functions

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85108175525&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - https://doi.org/10.1145/3406325.3451121

DO - https://doi.org/10.1145/3406325.3451121

M3 - منشور من مؤتمر

T3 - Proceedings of the Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing

SP - 722

EP - 735

BT - STOC 2021 - Proceedings of the 53rd Annual ACM SIGACT Symposium on Theory of Computing

A2 - Khuller, Samir

A2 - Williams, Virginia Vassilevska

T2 - 53rd Annual ACM SIGACT Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2021

Y2 - 21 June 2021 through 25 June 2021

ER -