Seeking to improve the site selectivity of acylation of amphiphilic diols, which is induced by imidazole-based nucleophilic catalysts and directs the reaction toward apolar sites, as we recently reported, we examined a new improved catalytic design and an alteration of the acylating agent. The new catalysts performed slightly better selectivity-wise in the model reaction, compared to the previous set, but notably could be prepared in a much more synthetically economic way. The change of the acylating agent from anhydride to acyl chloride, particularly in combination with the new catalysts, accelerated the reaction and increased the selectivity in favor of the apolar site. The new selectivity-inducing techniques were applied to midecamycin, a natural amphiphilic antibiotic possessing a secondary alcohol moiety in each of its two domains, polar as well as apolar. In the case of the anhydride, a basic dimethylamino group, decorating this substrate, overrides the catalyst's selectivity preference and forces selective acylation of the alcohol in the polar domain with a more than 91:1 ratio of the monoacylated products. To counteract the internal base influence, an acid additive was used or the acylating agent was changed to acyl chloride. The latter adjustment leads, in combination with our best catalyst, to the reversal of the ratio between the products to 1:11.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Organic Chemistry