In the vast majority of pediatric patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, the specific etiology is unknown. Studies on families with dilated cardiomyopathy have exemplified the role of genetic factors in cardiomyopathy etiology. In this study, we applied whole-exome sequencing to members of a non-consanguineous family affected by a previously unreported congenital dilated cardiomyopathy syndrome necessitating early-onset heart transplant. Exome analysis identified compound heterozygous variants in the FLNC gene. Histological analysis of the cardiac muscle demonstrated marked sarcomeric and myofibrillar abnormalities, and immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the presence of Filamin C aggregates in cardiac myocytes. We conclude that biallelic variants in FLNC can cause congenital dilated cardiomyopathy. As the associated clinical features of affected patients are mild, and can be easily overlooked, testing for FLNC should be considered in children presenting with dilated cardiomyopathy.
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