Bacteria of different Gram-types have inherently different outer cell structures, influencing cell surface properties and bacterial attachment. Dynamic biofouling experiments were conducted over four days in a bench-scale forward osmosis (FO) system with Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Gram-positive Anoxybacillus sp. Biofouling resulted in ∼10% decline in FO permeate water flux and was found to be significant for Anoxybacillus sp. but not for P. aeruginosa. Additionally, a stronger permeate water flux decline for P. aeruginosa in experiments with a superhydrophilic feed spacer demonstrated that mitigation methods require testing with different bacterial Gram-types. It was found that although permeate water flux decline can be affected by bacterial Gram-type the stable performance under enhanced biofouling conditions highlights the potential of FO for wastewater reclamation.
- Forward osmosis
- bacteria Gram-type
- spacer modification
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Aquatic Science
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
- Water Science and Technology