Closed-loop neuromodulation for studying spontaneous activity and causality

Michal Ramot, Alex Martin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Having established that spontaneous brain activity follows meaningful coactivation patterns and correlates with behavior, researchers have turned their attention to understanding its function and behavioral significance. We suggest closed-loop neuromodulation as a neural perturbation tool uniquely well suited for this task. Closed-loop neuromodulation has primarily been viewed as an interventionist tool to teach subjects to directly control their own brain activity. We examine an alternative operant conditioning model of closed-loop neuromodulation which, through implicit feedback, can manipulate spontaneous activity at the network level, without violating the spontaneous or endogenous nature of the signal, thereby providing a direct test of network causality.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)290-299
Number of pages10
JournalTrends in Cognitive Sciences
Issue number4
Early online date21 Feb 2022
StatePublished - Apr 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience


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