Clinical profile of re-hospitalizations in pediatric kidney and liver transplant recipients

Adi Shohet, Noa Ziv, Rachel Gavish, Orly Haskin, Hadas Alfandary, Orith Waisbourd-Zinman, Yael Mozer-Glassberg, Irit Krause

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Solid organ transplantation has evolved in recent decades, resulting in a rise in patient and graft survival. Frequent hospitalizations affect graft function, patients' health, and quality of life. This study characterizes the frequency and causes of post-transplant hospitalizations among pediatric recipients. Methods: This is a retrospective observational study evaluating pediatric kidney transplant recipients (KTR) and liver transplant recipients (LTR) aged 0–21 years, followed at a tertiary pediatric center in Israel from 2012 to 2017. Data were collected starting at 60 days post-transplantation. Diagnoses of admissions were based on clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings. Results: Forty-nine KTR experienced 199 all-cause re-hospitalizations (median number of re-hospitalizations per patient – 3 (IQR [interquartile range] 1–5.5), while 351 re-hospitalizations were recorded in 56 LTR (median – 5 [IQR 2–8.8]). Median follow-up time was 2.2 years for KTR (IQR 1–3.9) and 3 years for LTR (IQR 2.1–4.1). The most common cause for hospitalization for both cohorts was infection (50.8% and 62%, respectively). Gram-negative bacteria were the most common pathogens identified in KTR, while viral pathogens were more common in LTR (51% and 57% of pathogen-identified cases, respectively). Conclusions: This is the largest study to describe rehospitalizations for pediatric solid organ recipients. The hospital admission rate was higher in LTR in comparison to KTR. Infections were the most common cause of hospitalization throughout the whole study period in both populations. Frequent hospitalizations impose a heavy burden on patients and their families; better understanding of hospitalization causes may help to minimize their frequency.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere14658
JournalPediatric Transplantation
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2024


  • hospitalization
  • long-term results
  • pediatric
  • pediatric kidney transplant
  • pediatric liver transplant
  • quality of life

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Transplantation


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