Clever Hans or Neural Theory of Mind? Stress Testing Social Reasoning in Large Language Models

Natalie Shapira, Mosh Levy, Seyed Hossein Alavi, Xuhui Zhou, Yejin Choi, Yoav Goldberg, Maarten Sap, Vered Shwartz

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

Abstract

The escalating debate on AI's capabilities warrants developing reliable metrics to assess machine “intelligence.” Recently, many anecdotal examples were used to suggest that newer large language models (LLMs) like ChatGPT and GPT-4 exhibit Neural Theory-of-Mind (N-ToM); however, prior work reached conflicting conclusions regarding those abilities. We investigate the extent of LLMs' N-ToM through an extensive evaluation of 6 tasks and find that while LLMs exhibit certain N-ToM abilities, this behavior is far from being robust. We further examine the factors impacting performance on N-ToM tasks and discover that LLMs struggle with adversarial examples, indicating reliance on shallow heuristics rather than robust ToM abilities. We caution against drawing conclusions from anecdotal examples, limited benchmark testing, and using human-designed psychological tests to evaluate models.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEACL 2024 - 18th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Proceedings of the Conference
EditorsYvette Graham, Matthew Purver
PublisherAssociation for Computational Linguistics (ACL)
Pages2257-2273
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)9798891760882
StatePublished - 2024
Event18th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, EACL 2024 - St. Julian�s, Malta
Duration: 17 Mar 202422 Mar 2024

Publication series

NameEACL 2024 - 18th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Proceedings of the Conference
Volume1

Conference

Conference18th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, EACL 2024
Country/TerritoryMalta
CitySt. Julian�s
Period17/03/2422/03/24

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language

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