Body weight, vitamin D and zinc: A review of associations with coronavirus disease (COVID-19)

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Obesity has been associated with adverse Coronavirus disease [COVID-19] outcomes; obesity is associated with sub-optimal immune function, including vitamin D and zinc deficiencies, two micronutrients essential for immune function, including anti-viral activity. The co-occurrence of vitamin D and zinc deficiencies have been documented. These exposures have been widely discussed in both scientific and popular literature. Thus, a critical review of the association between obesity, vitamin D and zinc, in relation to the COVID pandemic, is appropriate. Evidence strongly associates obesity and adverse COVID outcomes including hospitalization, intensive care hospitalization, need for mechanical ventilation and death. While the mechanisms associating vitamin D and zinc to immune function are well-delineated, clinical trials of these nutrients fail to identify efficacy in the prevention or treatment of COVID. Further studies are warranted in susceptible populations. It is important that healthcare professionals practice evidence-based care; thus at this point, neither vitamin D nor zinc can be recommended as a preventive or cure for COVID.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)189-200
Number of pages12
JournalBioactive Compounds in Health and Disease
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • Body weight
  • Obesity
  • Vitamin D
  • Zinc

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science


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