Importance: Little is known about long-term associations of early-life exposure to extreme temperatures with child health and lung function. Objectives: To investigate the association of prenatal and postnatal heat or cold exposure with newborn lung function and identify windows of susceptibility. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study (SEPAGES) recruited pregnant women in France between July 8, 2014, and July 24, 2017. Data on temperature exposure, lung function, and covariates were available from 343 mother-child dyads. Data analysis was performed from January 1, 2021, to December 31, 2021. Exposures: Mean, SD, minimum, and maximum temperatures at the mother-child's residence, estimated using a state-of-the-art spatiotemporally resolved model. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcome measures were tidal breathing analysis and nitrogen multiple-breath washout test measured at 2 months of age. Adjusted associations between both long-term (35 gestational weeks and first 4 weeks after delivery) and short-term (7 days before lung function test) exposure to ambient temperature and newborn lung function were analyzed using distributed lag nonlinear models. Results: A total of 343 mother-child pairs were included in the analyses (median [IQR] maternal age at conception, 32 [30.0-35.2] years; 183 [53%] male newborns). A total of 246 mothers and/or fathers (72%) held at least a master's degree. Among the 160 female newborns (47%), long-term heat exposure (95th vs 50th percentile of mean temperature) was associated with decreased functional residual capacity (-39.7 mL; 95% CI, -68.6 to -10.7 mL for 24 °C vs 12 °C at gestational weeks 20-35 and weeks 0-4 after delivery) and increased respiratory rate (28.0/min; 95% CI, 4.2-51.9/min for 24 °C vs 12 °C at gestational weeks 14-35 and weeks 0-1 after delivery). Long-term cold exposure (5th vs 50th percentile of mean temperature) was associated with lower functional residual capacity (-21.9 mL; 95% CI, -42.4 to -1.3 mL for 1 °C vs 12 °C at gestational weeks 15-29), lower tidal volume (-23.8 mL; 95% CI, -43.1 to -4.4 mL for 1 °C vs 12 °C at gestational weeks 14-35 and weeks 0-4 after delivery), and increased respiratory rate (45.5/min; 95% CI, 10.1-81.0/min for 1 °C vs 12 °C at gestational weeks 6-35 and weeks 0-1 after delivery) in female newborns as well. No consistent association was observed for male newborns or short-term exposure to cold or heat. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, long-term heat and cold exposure from the second trimester until 4 weeks after birth was associated with newborn lung volumes, especially among female newborns..
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