We aimed to estimate the association of urinary metal content with the exposure to hazardous household factors and ambient air pollution in pregnant women. We analyzed urine samples of 143 women enrolled at delivery and assessed household exposure by questionnaire. Air pollution estimates were based on monitoring stations and satellite-based models. Complaints about noise, rubbish, and sewage in the neighborhood were associated with higher uranium concentrations (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.42, 1.46, and 1.18, respectively). Complaints about noise were more frequent in women with higher cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, cadmium, and vanadium urine concentrations (PRs = 2.42-9.43), and complaints about smell in women with higher cobalt and strontium (PRs = 2.55-6.27). Exposure to nitrogen oxides was associated with higher concentrations of nickel, aluminum, lead, and chromium in urine (PRs = 1.80-5.85). Women exposed to elevated levels of particulate matter were more likely to have higher concentrations of cobalt, nickel, thallium, lead, iron, strontium, barium, silver, and chromium (PRs = 1.97-13.64). Exposure to high levels of sulfur dioxide was positively associated with cobalt and nickel (PR = 1.98 and 1.88, respectively). The current analysis suggests the possibility of a related simultaneous exposure to multiple pollutants. Further studies are warranted to corroborate the findings and reveal the multiple exposure effect on human health.
- Ambient air pollution
- Heavy metals
- Household hazards
- Human biomonitoring
- Pregnancy exposures
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Science (miscellaneous)