Approximate encoding of quantum states using shallow circuits

Matan Ben Dov, David Shnaiderov, Adi Makmal, Emanuele G. Dalla Torre

Research output: Working paperPreprint


A common requirement of quantum simulations and algorithms is the preparation of complex states through sequences of 2-qubit gates. For a generic quantum state, the number of gates grows exponentially with the number of qubits, becoming unfeasible on near-term quantum devices. Here, we aim at creating an approximate encoding of the target state using a limited number of gates. As a first step, we consider a quantum state that is efficiently represented classically, such as a one-dimensional matrix product state. Using tensor network techniques, we develop an optimization algorithm that approaches the optimal implementation for a fixed number of gates. Our algorithm runs efficiently on classical computers and requires a polynomial number of iterations only. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach by comparing optimal and suboptimal circuits on real devices. We, next, consider the implementation of the proposed optimization algorithm directly on a quantum computer and overcome inherent barren plateaus by employing a local cost function rather than a global one. By simulating realistic shot noise, we verify that the number of required measurements scales polynomially with the number of qubits. Our work offers a universal method to prepare target states using local gates and represents a significant improvement over known strategies.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
StatePublished - 30 Jun 2022


  • quant-ph

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