Animosity and perceived risk in conflict-ridden tourist destinations

Galia Fuchs, Maria D. Alvarez, Sara Campo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a model of relationships for conflict-ridden destinations that include variables concerning the dispute and their effect on key constructs that shape visitation decisions. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical model is examined for two conflict-ridden Eastern Mediterranean destinations, Israel and Turkey, which suffer from ongoing armed conflicts, using two samples of potential tourists residing in the USA (n = 1,581) and India (n = 1,383). Findings: The relationships are stable for both destinations and cultural contexts. Animosity is a strong factor in tourists’ decisions, whereas perceived risk has a relatively insignificant impact. Knowledge of the conflict is also found to influence decisions about visiting conflict-ridden destinations. Originality/value: The study investigates the role of variables related to the conflict as antecedents of animosity and perceived risk, thus contributing to the understanding concerning decisions to visit conflict-ridden destinations. The model is generalized for varied destinations and cultures.

Original languageEnglish
JournalTourism Review
StateAccepted/In press - 1 Jan 2023


  • Animosity
  • Conflict-ridden destinations
  • Destination image
  • Knowledge about the conflict
  • Perceived risk
  • Sympathy

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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