AN ADJOINT-BASED METHOD for the INVERSION of the JUNO and CASSINI GRAVITY MEASUREMENTS into WIND FIELDS

Eli Galanti, Yohai Kaspi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

During 2016-17, the Juno and Cassini spacecraft will both perform close eccentric orbits of Jupiter and Saturn, respectively, obtaining high-precision gravity measurements for these planets. These data will be used to estimate the depth of the observed surface flows on these planets. All models to date, relating the winds to the gravity field, have been in the forward direction, thus only allowing the calculation of the gravity field from given wind models. However, there is a need to do the inverse problem since the new observations will be of the gravity field. Here, an inverse dynamical model is developed to relate the expected measurable gravity field, to perturbations of the density and wind fields, and therefore to the observed cloud-level winds. In order to invert the gravity field into the 3D circulation, an adjoint model is constructed for the dynamical model, thus allowing backward integration. This tool is used for the examination of various scenarios, simulating cases in which the depth of the wind depends on latitude. We show that it is possible to use the gravity measurements to derive the depth of the winds, both on Jupiter and Saturn, also taking into account measurement errors. Calculating the solution uncertainties, we show that the wind depth can be determined more precisely in the low-to-mid-latitudes. In addition, the gravitational moments are found to be particularly sensitive to flows at the equatorial intermediate depths. Therefore, we expect that if deep winds exist on these planets they will have a measurable signature by Juno and Cassini.

Original languageEnglish
Article number91
Number of pages10
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume820
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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