Almost global asymptotic stability of a grid-connected synchronous generator

Vivek Natarajan, George Weiss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We study the global asymptotic behavior of a grid-connected constant field current synchronous generator (SG). The grid is regarded as an “infinite bus,” i.e., a three-phase AC voltage source. The generator does not include any controller other than the frequency droop loop. This means that the mechanical torque applied to this generator is an affine function of its angular velocity. The negative slope of this function is the frequency droop constant. We derive sufficient conditions on the SG parameters under which there exist exactly two periodic state trajectories for the SG, one stable and another unstable, and for almost all initial states, the state trajectory of the SG converges to the stable periodic trajectory (all the angles are measured modulo 2 π). Along both periodic state trajectories, the angular velocity of the SG is equal to the grid frequency. Our sufficient conditions are easy to check computationally. An important tool in our analysis is an integro-differential equation called the exact swing equation, which resembles a forced pendulum equation and is equivalent to our fourth-order model of the grid-connected SG. Apart from our objective of providing an analytical proof for a global asymptotic behavior observed in a classical dynamical system, a key motivation for this work is the development of synchronverters which are inverters that mimic the behavior of SGs. Understanding the global dynamics of SGs can guide the choice of synchronverter parameters and operation. As an application we find a set of stable nominal parameters for a 500-kW synchronverter.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10
JournalMathematics of Control, Signals, and Systems
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2018


  • Almost global asymptotic stability
  • Forced pendulum equation
  • Infinite bus
  • Synchronous machine
  • Synchronverter

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Signal Processing
  • Control and Optimization
  • Applied Mathematics


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