Albuminuria is an under-recognized component of chronic kidney disease definition, staging, and prognosis. Guidelines, particularly for hypertension, conflict on recommendations for urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) measurement. Separately among 1 344 594 adults with diabetes and 2 334 461 nondiabetic adults with hypertension from the chronic kidney disease Prognosis Consortium, we assessed ACR testing, estimated the prevalence and incidence of ACR ≥30 mg/g and developed risk models for ACR ≥30 mg/g. The ACR screening rate (cohort range) was 35.1% (12.3%-74.5%) in diabetes and 4.1% (1.3%-20.7%) in hypertension. Screening was largely unrelated to the predicted risk of prevalent albuminuria. The median prevalence of ACR ≥30 mg/g across cohorts was 32.1% in diabetes and 21.8% in hypertension. Higher systolic blood pressure was associated with a higher prevalence of albuminuria (odds ratio [95% CI] per 20 mm Hg in diabetes, 1.50 [1.42-1.60]; in hypertension, 1.36 [1.28-1.45]). The ratio of undetected (due to lack of screening) to detected ACR ≥30 mg/g was estimated at 1.8 in diabetes and 19.5 in hypertension. Among those with ACR <30 mg/g, the median 5-year incidence of ACR ≥30 mg/g across cohorts was 23.9% in diabetes and 21.7% in hypertension. Incident albuminuria was associated with initiation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (incidence-rate ratio [95% CI], diabetes 3.09 [2.71-3.53]; hypertension 2.87 [2.29-3.59]). In conclusion, despite similar risk of albuminuria to those with diabetes, ACR screening in patients with hypertension was low. Our findings suggest that regular albuminuria screening should be emphasized to enable early detection of chronic kidney disease and initiation of treatment with cardiovascular and renal benefits.
- blood pressure
- diabetes mellitus
- prevalence risk
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine