Background: Septic peritonitis (SP) is a common life-threatening condition. The aims of this study were to describe the aetiology, clinicopathological abnormalities, complications, treatment, outcome and prognosis of dogs with SP. Methods: Records of 113 dogs diagnosed and surgically treated for SP between 2004 and 2020 were reviewed. Results: Overall survival rate was 74.3%. Parameters at presentation that were significantly associated with mortality were lateral recumbency (p = 0.001) and elevated respiratory rate (p = 0.045). Hypotension during or after surgery (p < 0.001), liver injury (p < 0.001) and acute kidney injury (p < 0.001) were also more common in non-survivors. The source of contamination, number of surgeries or the location of perforation in cases of gastrointestinal tract perforation were not associated with mortality. Delta glucose (serum vs. abdominal) was available in 36 out of 113 dogs and the difference was more than 20 mg/dl in only 22 of out 36 (61.1%) cases. Conclusion: Liver and kidney injuries play a role in mortality, and early diagnosis and intervention are recommended to prevent multiple organ dysfunction and death. The reported high sensitivity of delta glucose is questionable in diagnosis of SP.
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