Adaptive Two-Degrees-of-Freedom Current Control for Solenoids: Theoretical Investigation and Practical Application

Michael Schwegel, Tobias Gluck, Vitaly Shaferman, Luca Zaccarian, Andreas Kugi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this article, an adaptive two-degrees-of-freedom current control algorithm for solenoids is presented comprising an adaptive pole placement controller in combination with a regularized least-squares parameter estimation law. An additional adaptive feedforward controller takes advantage of the estimated plant parameters to further enhance the tracking performance. The stability of the overall closed-loop system is rigorously proven. The proposed solution differs from existing approaches by the adaptive feedforward controller and the way the parameter estimation is performed. The control concept is applied with the same controller parametrization to three solenoids from different applications, with substantially differing parameters. The experimental results show high tracking performance and fast parameter convergence even with poor initial estimates and despite the nonlinear dependence of the inductance on the current and position. The experimental results are also compared to two benchmark control design paradigms known from the literature, i.e. a second-order sliding mode controller and a nonlinear model reference adaptive control solution, which are both outperformed by the proposed controller.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1078-1091
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 May 2023


  • Adaptive control
  • least-squares identification
  • solenoid control
  • two-degrees-of-freedom control

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Control and Systems Engineering


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