Inhibitory receptors (IRs), such as the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), are cell surface molecules expressed on both normal epithelial, endothelial, and hematopoietic cells and on neoplastic cells. IRs are usually used by cancer cells to inhibit immune cell functions. Thus, CEACAM1 positive tumor cells can interact homophilically with CEACAM1 expressed on T and NK cells to inhibit their antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). In this study, we investigated the effect of agonistic/activating anti-CEACAM1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) on melanoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo, following our hypothesis that activation of CEACAM1 on melanoma cells by distinct mAbs may induce inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and/or their death. To address this, we established an activating anti-CEACAM1 mAb (CCM5.01) and characterized its binding to the CEACAM1 receptor. Using this mAb, we assessed the expression of CEACAM1 on four different human melanoma cell lines by western blot and flow cytometry and determined its effect on cell viability in vitro by MTT assay. Furthermore, we evaluated the mAb mechanism of action and found that binding of CEACAM1 with CCM5.01 induced SHP1 phosphorylation and p53 activation resulting in melanoma cell apoptosis. For in vivo studies, a xenograft model of melanoma was performed by injection of Mel-14 cells subcutaneously (s.c.) in SCID/Beige mice followed by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of CCM5.01 or of IgG1 isotype control every other day. CCM5.01 treated mice showed a slight but not significant decrease in tumor weight in comparison to the control group. Based on the obtained data, we suggest that activating CEACAM1 on melanoma cells might be a promising novel approach to fight cancers expressing this IR.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine
- Molecular Biology
- Cancer Research