A multi-scale framework for advancing national dairy sector GHG mitigation in Israel

Meidad Kissinger, Shir Triky, Tzafrir Grinhut, Hillel Malka, Shaul Zaban, Tal Schcolnik, Gaby Adin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Dairy production systems display a wide range of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission characteristics influenced by factors like geographical location, farm size, herd composition, milk yield, management practices, and existing infrastructure. Effective national GHG mitigation plans for the dairy industry should incorporate strategies that account for the diversity within this system. This paper aims to introduce a multi-scale framework to assess the GHG mitigation potential within the Israeli dairy system. It begins by analyzing the GHG intensity per unit of milk produced by a representative sample of 145 farms (20 % of the national dairy farms). It then extrapolates the data to the regional and national scales. The research reveals an average carbon footprint of 1.18 (ranging from 0.8 to 1.64) kg CO2e per kilogram of milk (FPCM) over the life cycle up to the farm gate. Upon scaling up, the study estimates the annual carbon footprint of the Israeli dairy industry at 1,777,800 t of CO2e. Consequently, this framework highlights areas with significant GHG emissions that require attention and opportunities for national mitigation based on the detailed characteristics of the studied systems.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number171705
JournalScience of the Total Environment
StatePublished - 20 May 2024


  • Carbon footprint
  • Dairy production
  • GHG mitigation
  • Israel
  • Life cycle assessment
  • Multi-scale framework

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pollution
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry


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