A failed encounter in mathematics and chemistry: The folded models of van't Hoff and Sachse

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Three-dimensional material models of molecules were used throughout the 19th century, either functioning as a mere representation or opening new epistemic horizons. In this paper, two case studies are examined: the 1875 models of van't Hoff and the 1890 models of Sachse. What is unique in these two case studies is that both models were not only folded, but were also conceptualized mathematically. When viewed in light of the chemical research of that period not only were both of these aspects, considered in their singularity, exceptional, but also taken together may be thought of as a subversion of the way molecules were chemically investigated in the 19th century. Concentrating on this unique shared characteristic in the models of van't Hoff and the models of Sachse, this paper deals with the shift s and displacements between their operational methods and existence: between their technical and epistemological aspects and the fact that they were folded, which was forgotten or simply ignored in the subsequent development of chemistry.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)359-386
Number of pages28
JournalTeorie Vedy/ Theory of Science
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Folded and foldable models
  • Mathematization of chemistry
  • Sachse
  • Shift s in epistemological modi
  • Stereochemistry
  • Van't Hoff

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Philosophy
  • Library and Information Sciences
  • History and Philosophy of Science
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)


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