A Design of Experiment Approach for Development of Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion Process Parameters and Improvement of Ti-6Al-4V As-Built Properties

Dor Braun, Yaron Itay Ganor, Shmuel Samuha, Gilad Mordechai Guttmann, Michael Chonin, Nachum Frage, Shmuel Hayun, Eitan Tiferet

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Additive manufacturing is a novel and breakthrough technology by which parts can be manufactured for various purposes and services. As in any production process, the desired properties of additively manufactured components, particularly in electron beam melting processes, ultimately depend on the manufacturing process parameters. Process parameters should be designed accordingly to manufacture parts with specific and desired characteristics. This study focuses on examining the effect of process parameters, such as beam current and velocity, focus offset, and line offset, at three different values each, on the properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The study on the effect of the process parameters on the as-built material’s performance was performed using the Taguchi approach using an L9 (34) orthogonal array. The properties of printed parts (density, surface roughness, elastic moduli, hardness, tensile characteristics, fractography, and microstructure) were tested. A wide range of properties was obtained and analyzed; namely, porosity varied from 8% to almost fully dense materials with density higher than 99.9% and a range of yield and ultimate tensile strength values and brittle samples with less than 1% elongation to ductile samples with an elongation greater than 16%. The overall performance of printed parts was determined based on an evaluation criterion. Several parameter combinations were found and yielded the fabrication of parts with high density and relatively fine microstructure. The comparison of the best parameter combinations determined in this study and the parameters recommended by the machine manufacturer showed that improved results were obtained, and even when using the optimal parameters, they can be improved even more. This result highlights the ability of the proposed DOE method to further develop existing results and even for development of manufacturing parameters for new materials.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number90
JournalJournal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2022


  • electron beam melting
  • mechanical properties
  • microstructure

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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