Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a crucial asset for human health and modern medicine, however, the repeated administration of mAbs can be highly immunogenic. Drug immunogenicity manifests in the generation of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs), and some mAbs show immunogenicity in up to 70% of patients. ADAs can alter a drug’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, reducing drug efficacy. In more severe cases, ADAs can neutralize the drug’s therapeutic effects or cause severe adverse events to the patient. While some contributing factors to ADA formation are known, the molecular mechanisms of how therapeutic mAbs elicit ADAs are not completely clear. Accurate ADA detection is necessary to provide clinicians with sufficient information for patient monitoring and clinical intervention. However, ADA assays present unique challenges because both the analyte and antigen are antibodies, so most assays are cumbersome, costly, time consuming, and lack standardization. This review will discuss aspects related to ADA formation following mAb drug administration. First, we will provide an overview of the prevalence of ADA formation and the available diagnostic tools for their detection. Next, we will review studies that support possible molecular mechanisms causing the formation of ADA. Finally, we will summarize recent approaches used to decrease the propensity of mAbs to induce ADAs.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- !!Immunology and Allergy