Riboswitches are ligand-binding elements contained within the 5' untranslated regions of bacterial transcripts, which generally regulate expression of downstream open reading frames. Here, we show that in Listeria monocytogenes, a riboswitch that binds vitamin B-12 controls expression of a noncoding regulatory RNA, Rli55. Rli55, in turn, controls expression of the eut genes, whose products enable ethanolamine utilization and require B12 as a cofactor. Defects in ethanolamine utilization, or in its regulation by Rli55, significantly attenuate Listeria virulence in mice. Rli55 functions by sequestering the two-component response regulator EutV by means of a EutV-binding site contained within the RNA. Thus, Rli55 is a riboswitch-regulated member of the small group of regulatory RNAs that function by sequestering a protein and reveals a distinctive mechanism of signal integration in bacterial gene regulation.