Dark energy is one of the greatest scientific mysteries of today. The idea that dark energy originates from quantum vacuum fluctuations has circulated since the late '60s, but theoretical estimations of vacuum energy have disagreed with the measured value by many orders of magnitude, until recently. Lifshitz theory applied to cosmology has produced the correct order of magnitude for dark energy. Furthermore, the theory is based on well-established and experimentally well-tested grounds in atomic, molecular and optical physics. In this paper, we confront Lifshitz cosmology with astronomical data. We find that the dark-energy dynamics predicted by the theory is able to resolve the Hubble tension, the discrepancy between the observed and predicted Hubble constant within the standard cosmological model. The theory is consistent with supernovae data, Baryon Acoustic Oscillations and the Cosmic Microwave Background. Our findings indicate that Lifshitz cosmology is a serious candidate for explaining dark energy.